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Cheap flights to Paris from Tuxtla Gutiérrez

Tuxtla Gutiérrez is the capital and the largest city of the Mexican southeast state of Chiapas. It is the most developed, populated and therefore the state’s most important municipality. A busy government, commercial and services-oriented city, Tuxtla (as it is commonly known) had one of the fastest growing rates in Mexico in the last 40 years. Unlike many other areas in Chiapas, it is not a tourist attraction, but a transportation hub for tourists coming into the state, with a major airport and a bus terminal.

The Zoques made the first pre-Hispanic settlement at the site. They named the valley area name “Coyatocmoc”, which means “land or house of rabbits”. The Aztecs intruded into the area and named it “Tuchtlan”, which means the same thing. “Gutiérrez” was added to the city’s name in 1848 to honor Joaquín Miguel Gutiérrez, a Conservative politician according to a legend.

After the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, and the subjugation of the Chiapa people in 1528, the Dominicans constructed a monastery in nearby Tecpatán, which today is an independent municipality. There is no official founding date for Tuxtla, but it is known that in the middle of the 16th century, these monks gathered dispersed Zoques in the valley into communities centered on churches. Today’s Saint Mark’s Cathedral is the parish church founded by the Dominicans for one of these communities in 1560.

The village was officially recognized as a villa by King of Spain in 1813 with a population of about 5,000, three-quarters of which were Zoques. In 1821, the authorities of the villa proclaimed independence from both Spain and the regional colonial government of Guatemala, along with other areas in what would become Chiapas. However, this declaration was not accepted by either Guatemala or Mexico.

The first library in the entire state was founded here in 1910.

During the Mexican Revolution, a battalion called “The Sons of Tuxtla” was formed in 1911, with Captain Julio Miramontes assassinated in 1912. Troops supporting Venustiano Carranza took over in 1914, led by Agustín Castro. Chiapas was reorganized into the municipality system in 1915, Tuxtla Gutiérrez becoming the head of one of these and Noé Vázquez the first municipal president. The city remained the state capital. Reaction against Carranza’s policies was headed by the “Mapaches”, a group of landholders in the state who objected to the loss of their privileges and the redistribution of their lands. They burned the state government building, destroying its archives in 1915. General Salvador Alvarado and 2500 troops fought the Mapaches commanded by General Tiburcio Fernández Ruiz. Catholic churches were closed and images of saints were burned in the city in 1934.

In 1941, the municipal government moved from the old building on El Triunfo Street in the Santo Domingo neighborhood to the corner of Avenida Central and Calle 2ª Poniente on lands that belonged to the city’s first municipal president. Here a new “municipal palace” was built in Neoclassical style. However, the municipal palace was moved again to its current location in 1982, and the Neoclassical building was given to the Federación de Trabajadores del Estado de Chiapas.

The Diocese of Tuxtla was created in 1965, which elevated the parish of San Marcos (Saint Mark) to a cathedral. Tuxtla Gutierrez became the hometown of actress Alejandra Meyer, whose acting career began during the 1960s. She is best known as Dona Chata on the television series Dr. Candido Perez. The first Feria de Chiapas was held in 1980. The municipality suffered 38 wildfires in 1988. John Paul II visited the city in 1990.

During the 1990s, a part of the state of Chiapas was wracked by the EZLN or Zapatista uprising. While most of this group’s activity was in rural areas of the state, Tuxtla was also affected by it. As many as 10,000 Zapatista sympathizers protested in the city in 1998 to push federal officials to honor the 1994 San Andrés Accords and to push for new gubernatorial elections and other demands. The political instability pushed many indigenous into the municipality from more rural areas in the latter half of the decade. In 1998, PRD politician, EZLN activist and leader of the Asamblea Estatal Democrática del Pueblo Chiapaneco Rubicel Ruiz Gamboa was assassinated in the city. It is thought the act was in response to Ruiz Gamboa’s work in land redistribution in the state’s La Frailesca region.

In the 1990s, Mexicana airlines stopped service to Tuxtla, leaving only Aerocaribe. A major crash killing nineteen persons led to protests and the reinstatement of service to the city by Mexicana in 2000.[10] In 2011, the government of Guatemala announced that it would open a consulate in the city to support its nationals who cross through Mexican territory or reside here. The government noted the problems that many Guatemalans, especially those who enter Mexico illegally, have had in the country. A tractor trailer with 219 illegal immigrants was stopped in the municipality in early 2011. Most were Guatemalan and almost all from Central America but there were also people from Sri Lanka and Nepal. The migrants were detected by using portable X-ray on the passing truck.

As of 2015, the municipality had a total population of 598,710. Other than the city of Tuxtla, the municipality had 189 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: Copoya (8,160) and El Jobo (4,632), classified as urban.

Over half of the population of the Central Valley region of Chiapas lives in the city. Most are young, with 66% under the age of thirty and the average age of twenty three. The rate of population growth is about four percent, with the population expected to double in less than twenty years. 99.56% of the municipality’s population lives in three urban areas with the rest scattered among 81 other rural communities. The population density is 1,053/km2 well above the regional average of 75/km2 and state 52/km2. The average woman has 2.27 children, below the regional average of 2.87 and the state average of 3.47. There is some immigration into the city, mostly from Veracruz, State of Mexico and Mexico City.

The population growth of the municipality has exceeded that of the state for the last five decades. From 1990 to 2000, the municipality has a growth rate of 3.95% almost double the state average. However, the greatest rate of growth was between 1970 and 1980 when it was 8.6%. This population growth has led to high demands for lands, housing, infrastructure and services, with many not able to keep up, especially in low income areas, which is about 40% of the city. There are an estimated 15,000 cases of illegally tapping into the city’s water distribution system, with an estimated loss of millions of pesos. This is done by industries, small business and homes. The evasion of payment has made it difficult for the city to finance expansion of the system into new neighborhoods.

Just under eighty percent are Catholic with just over thirteen percent belonging to Protestant or other Christian groups.

Most of the population is mestizo with a significant population of ethnic Zoques. Although about 25% of the state’s population speaks an indigenous language, the percentage is much lower in the municipality of Tuxtla. As of 2005, there were 8,256 people who spoke an indigenous language out of a total population of 434,143. The percentage of indigenous language speakers rose somewhat from 1995 to 2000 as many rural people moved into the area as a consequesnce of the Zapatista rebellion. This has added languages such as Tzotzil, Tzeltal, Zapotec and Ch’ol to the native Zoque.

 

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